Dystonia is related to a problem with the neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia, the part of the brain that processes the information that helps coordination of muscle contractions and maintaining tone. Dystonia doesn’t affect intelligence or cognitive thinking and isn’t generally related to mental health issues.
The cause of dystonia is mostly unknown. A number of different genetic mutations have been linked to dystonia. Dystonia also can be caused by various reasons such as stroke or medication side effects.
Signs of dystonia
The first signs of dystonia can appear at any age. In children, it usually starts between the ages of 5 and 16 and frequently is generalized. Symptoms include:
- Involuntary rapid blinking
- A sudden tightening or turning of the neck to one side, particularly when fatigued or stressed
- Difficulty speaking
- Voice tremor
Symptoms can worsen with tiredness, stress or increased physical activity.
Types of dystonia
The types of dystonia are identified by which part of the body is affected.
- Generalized dystonia affects areas all over the body.
- Hemidystonia affects a leg and an arm on one side of the body.
- Multifocal dystonia affects at least two different parts of the body.
- Segmental dystonia affects at least two parts of the body that are next to each other.
- Focal dystonia affects one particular area of the body. Some types include spasmodic torticollis (in the neck), blepharospasm (in the eyelids), Meige syndrome (in the lower face), or writer’s cramp or limb dystonia (in the hands).
Treatment may include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, biofeedback, deep brain stimulation (movement disorders surgery), physical therapy and speech therapy.